MAIASP. 2022. No. 14

L.F. Abzalov (Kazan, Russia), M.S. Gatin (Kazan, Russia), I.A. Mustakimov (Kazan, Russia), R.Yu. Pochekaev (Saint Petersburg, Russia)

New historical insights on protection of the trade routes in Genghisids states, 13th to 14th century

DOI: 10.53737/2713-2021.2022.89.86.014

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Pages: 297313

Among historical records used in this research, an example of the yarligh by Iranian Ilkhan on the appointment of a head of a caravan is of key importance. This edict is incorporated into the treatise for penmen “Dastur al-katib”, which was written in the 1360s by Mukhammad ibn Khindushakh Nakhchivani, a Persian official. The document is translated into Russian for the first time and provided with interdisciplinary scholarly commentary. The data of the yarligh, combined with further relevant accounts, provide a rather seminal record on issues of security for caravans and trade routes in the Black Sea area, which in the 13th to 14th centuries was divided into parts between successor states of the Mongol Empire — the Golden Horde (the Ulus of Jochi) and the state of the Khulaguids in Iran, — and evaluate the effectiveness of the protective measures the Genghisids rulers have taken to respond to those challenges.

Key words: Mongol Empire, Golden Horde, Khulaguid state, trade policy, caravans, protection of trade routes in the Medieval Ages, yarligh, traditional law.

Received August 15, 2022

Accepted for publication August 29, 2022

About the authors:

Abzalov Lenar Firgatovich (Kazan, Russia). PhD (History), Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University


Gatin Marat Salavatovich (Kazan, Russia). PhD (History), Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University


Mustakimov Ilias Al’fredovich (Kazan, Russia). PhD (History), Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan


Pochekaev Roman Yulianovich (Saint Petersburg, Russia). Dr. habil. (History), PhD (Law), Professor, National Research University Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg